Keisuke Omori, Teppei Morikawa, Akiko Kunita, Tatsuro Nakamura, Kosuke Aritake, Yoshihiro Urade, Masashi Fukayama, Takahisa Murata


Endothelial cells (ECs) are a key component of the tumor microenvironment. They have abnormal characteristics compared to the ECs in normal tissues. Here, we found a marked increase in lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) mRNA (Ptgds) expression in ECs isolated from mouse melanoma. Immunostaining of mouse melanoma revealed expression of L-PGDS protein in the ECs. In situ hybridization also showed L-PGDS (PTGDS) mRNA expression in the ECs of human melanoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma. In vitro experiments showed that stimulation with tumor cell-derived IL-1 and TNF-α increased L-PGDS mRNA expression and its product prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in human normal ECs. We also investigated the contribution of L-PGDS–PGD2 to tumor growth and vascularization. Systemic or EC-specific deficiency of L-PGDS accelerated the growth of melanoma in mice, whereas treatment with an agonist of the PGD2 receptor, DP1 (BW245C, 0.1 mg/kg, injected intraperitoneally twice daily), attenuated it. Morphological and in vivo studies showed that endothelial L-PGDS deficiency resulted in functional changes of tumor ECs such as accelerated vascular hyperpermeability, angiogenesis, and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in tumors, which in turn reduced tumor cell apoptosis. These observations suggest that tumor cell-derived inflammatory cytokines increase L-PGDS expression and subsequent PGD2 production in the tumor ECs. This PGD2 acts as a negative regulator of the tumorigenic changes in tumor ECs.

Paper Information

: The Journal of Pathology
: 10.1002/path.4993