Takashi Sasaki, Ayane Kuboyama, Moeko Mita, Shotaro Murata, Makoto Shimizu, Jun Inou, Kazutoshi Mori, and Ryuichiro Sato


TGR5 (also known as G protein–coupled bile acid receptor 1, GPBAR1) is a G protein–coupled bile acid receptor that is expressed in many diverse tissues. TGR5 is involved in various metabolic processes, including glucose metabolism and energy expenditure; however, TGR5's function in skeletal muscle is not fully understood. Using both gain- and loss-of-function mouse models, we demonstrate here that Tgr5 activation promotes muscle cell differentiation and muscle hypertrophy. Both young and old transgenic mice with muscle-specific Tgr5 expression exhibited increased muscle strength. Moreover, we found that Tgr5 expression is increased by the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is an adaptive response required for maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Both ER stress response element (ERSE)- and unfolded protein response element (UPRE)-like sites are present in the 5′ upstream region of the Tgr5 gene promoter and are essential for Tgr5 expression by Atf6α (activating transcription factor 6α), a well known UPR-activated transcriptional regulator. We observed that in the skeletal muscle of mice, exercise-induced UPR increases Tgr5 expression, an effect that was abrogated in Atf6α KO mice, indicating that Atf6α is essential for this response. These findings indicate that the bile acid receptor Tgr5 contributes to improved muscle function and provide an additional explanation for the beneficial effects of exercise on skeletal muscle activity.

Paper Information

: The Journal of Biological Chemistry
: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.002733