Anthony J. Romo,# Taro Shiraishi,# Hideo Ikeuchi, Geng-Min Lin, Yujie Geng, Yu-Hsuan Lee, Priscilla H. Liem, Tianlu Ma, Yasushi Ogasawara, Kazuo Shin-ya, Makoto Nishiyama, Tomohisa Kuzuyama,* and Hung-wen Liu*. #These authors contributed equally.


Peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics (PNAs) are a diverse class of natural products with promising biomedical activities. These compounds have tripartite structures composed of a core saccharide, a nucleobase, and one or more amino acids. In particular, amipurimycin and the miharamycins are novel 2-aminopurinyl PNAs with complex nine-carbon core saccharides and include the unusual amino acids (–)-cispentacin and N5-hydroxyarginine, respectively. Despite their interesting structures and properties, these PNAs have heretofore eluded biochemical scrutiny. Herein is reported the discovery and initial characterization of the miharamycin gene cluster in Streptomyces miharaensis (mhr) and the amipurimycin gene cluster (amc) in Streptomyces novoguineensis and Streptomyces sp. SN-C1. The gene clusters were identified using a comparative genomics approach, and heterologous expression of the amc cluster as well as gene interruption experiments in the mhr cluster support their role in the biosynthesis of amipurimycin and the miharamycins, respectively. The mhr and amc biosynthetic gene clusters characterized encode enzymes typical of polyketide biosynthesis instead of enzymes commonly associated with PNA biosynthesis, which along with labeled precursor feeding studies, implies that the core saccharides found in the miharamycins and amipurimycin are partially assembled with polyketides rather than derived solely from carbohydrates. Furthermore, in vitro analysis of Mhr20 and Amc18 established their roles as ATP-grasp ligases involved in the attachment of the pendant amino acids found in these PNAs, and Mhr24 was found to be an unusual hydroxylase involved in the biosynthesis of N5-hydroxyarginine. Finally, analysis of the amc cluster and feeding studies also led to the proposal of a biosynthetic pathway for (–)-cispentacin.

Paper Information

The Journal of American Chemical Society