Effects of orally administered Euglena gracilis and its reserve polysaccharide, paramylon, on gastric dysplasia in A4gnt knockout mice
Masataka Iida, Mark Joseph Desamero, Kosuke Yasuda, Ayaka Nakashima, Kengo Suzuki, James Ken Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida, Ryohei Ogawa, Satoshi Hachimura, Jun Nakayama, Shigeru Kyuwa, Kozue Miura, Shigeru Kakuta*, Kazuhiro Hirayama*
Euglena gracilis is widely utilized as food or supplement to promote human and animal health, as it contains rich nutrients. In this study, we administered spray-dried powder of E. gracilis and paramylon, β-glucan stored in E. gracilis cells, to A4gnt knockout (KO) mice. A4gnt KO mice are a mutant mouse model that spontaneously develops gastric cancer through hyperplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence in the antrum of the stomach, and we observed the effects of E. gracilis and paramylon on the early involvements of A4gnt KO mice. Male and female 10-week-old A4gnt KO mice and their age-matched wildtype C57BL/6J mice were orally administered with 50 mg of E. gracilis or paramylon suspended in saline or saline as a control. After 3-week administration, animals were euthanatized and the stomach was examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Gene expression patterns of the stomach, which have been reported to be altered with A4gnt KO, and IgA concentration in small intestine were also analyzed with real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Administration of Euglena significantly reduced the number of stimulated CD3-positive T-lymphocytes in pyloric mucosa of A4gnt KO mice and tend to reduce polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. Euglena administration further downregulated the expression of Il11 and Cxcl1 of A4gnt KO mice. Euglena administration also affected IgA concentration in small intestinal contents of A4gnt KO mice. Paramylon administration reduced the number of CD3-positive lymphocytes in pyloric mucosa of A4gnt KO mice, and downregulated the expressions of Il11 and Ccl2 of A4gnt KO mice. Although we found no significant effects on gross and microscopic signs of gastric dysplasia and cell proliferation, the present study suggests that the administration of Euglena and paramylon may ameliorate the early involvements of A4gnt mice through the effects on inflammatory reactions in the gastric mucosa. The cancer-preventing effects should be studied with long-term experiments until actual gastric cancer formation.
- : Scientific Reports
- : 10.1038/s41598-021-92013-5
- : https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-92013-5