Toma Kashima, Kouki Okumura, Akihiro Ishiwata, Machika Kaieda, Tohru Terada, Takatoshi Arakawa, Chihaya Yamada, Kentaro Shimizu, Katsunori Tanaka, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Yukishige Ito, Kiyotaka Fujita*, and Shinya Fushinobu*


Fructooligosaccharides and their anhydrides are widely utilized as health-promoting foods and prebiotics. Various enzymes acting on β-D-fructofuranosyl linkages of natural fructan polymers have been utilized to produce functional compounds. However, enzymes that hydrolyze and form α-D-fructofuranosyl linkages have been less studied. Here, we identified the BBDE_2040 gene product from Bifidobacterium dentium (αFFase1) as an enzyme with α-D-fructofuranosidase and α-D-arabinofuranosidase activities and an anomer-retaining manner. αFFase1 is not homologous with any known enzymes, suggesting that it is a member of a novel glycoside hydrolase family. When caramelized fructose sugar was incubated with αFFase1, conversions of β-D-Frup-(2→1)-α-D-Fruf to α-D-Fruf-1,2':2,1'-β-D-Frup (diheterolevulosan II), and from β-D-Fruf-(2→1)-α-D-Fruf (inulobiose) to α-D-Fruf-1,2':2,1'-β-D-Fruf (difructose dianhydride I, DFA I) were observed. The reaction equilibrium between inulobiose and DFA I was biased toward the latter (1:9) to promote the intramolecular dehydrating condensation reaction. Thus, we named this enzyme DFA I synthase/hydrolase. The crystal structures of αFFase1 in complex with β-D-Fruf and β-D-Araf were determined at resolutions of up to 1.76 Å. Modeling of a DFA I molecule in the active site and mutational analysis also identified critical residues for catalysis and substrate binding. The hexameric structure of αFFase1 revealed the connection of the catalytic pocket to a large internal cavity via a channel. Molecular dynamics analysis implied stable binding of DFA I and inulobiose to the active site with surrounding water molecules. Taken together, these results establish DFA I synthase/hydrolase as a member of a new glycoside hydrolase family (GH172).

Paper Information

: The Journal of Biological Chemistry